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Liquid Penetrant Testing
Ultrasonic Testing - Level 2
Course Description :

This course provides the student with 40 hours of Level 2 training in the Ultrasonic Testing method designed around the aerospace industry requirements. This course is designed to cover ultrasonic inspection of a wide variety of product forms. The laboratory portion of the course will train the student to be able to identify waveform characteristics of various material defects and enable them to develop and apply techniques in accordance with customer/industry specifications and standards. Students will also be introduced to hands on training in the immersion technique of the method. Prerequisite: Level 1 UT Training Course.

Applicable Standards and Documents :

This training program was developed to meet commercial and customer requirements to include: ASNT-TC-1A; ASTM E-165; ASTM E-1417 AWS; ASME sect V.

Liquid Penetrant Testing
Level I and II
Training Course Outline

This course covers the principles of Liquid Penetrant Testing and prepares a candidate to

  • Setup and calibrate equipment
  • Interpret and Evaluate Results with respect to Applicable Codes, Standards and Specifications
  • Familiar with the scope and limitations of the Methods
  • Write test reports.

Training Material is presented in Module that are followed by Quizzes

General Training

Personnel Certification: ASNT SNT-TC-1A and NAS 410

Module 1: Manufacturing Discontinuities
  • Types of Discontinuities: – Inherent, Processing and Service
  • Casting Discontinuities :- Hot Tear, Cold Shut, Porosity, Shrinkage
  • Primary Processing Discontinuities including discontinuities in Rolling, Forging, Drawing, Extruding
  • Secondary Processing Discontinuities including discontinuities in Grinding, Heat Treating, Machining, Welding, Plating
  • Service Discontinuities:- Erosion, Wear, Fatigue, Corrosion, Creep, Hydrogen Attack
Module 2 : Principles
  • Purpose of Liquid Penetrant Testing
  • Physical Principles
  • Wetting Characteristics and Contact Angle
  • Wetting Ability
  • Force of Cohesion and Surface Tension
  • Capillary Action
  • Viscosity
  • Application of Penetrant: Dwell Time
  • Reversed Capillary Action
  • Visibility of Indication
  • Categories of Test Processes
  • Types of Dye: Type I and Type II
  • Methods of Removal of excess Penetrant including Water Washable, Emulsifiers and Solvent Removable
  • Sensitivity Levels – ½, 1, 2, 3, 4
  • Selection of Process
  • Limitations of Penetrant Testing
Module 3: Basic Steps

This module covers the basic steps involved in the following processes

  • Method A – Water Washable
  • Method B – Lipophilic Emulsifier
  • Method C – Solvent Removable
  • Method D – Hydrophilic Emulsifier
Module 4: Pre and post cleaning
  • Choice of Cleaning Method
  • Different Cleaning Methods including Detergent, Solvent, Alkaline, Steam, Ultrasonic cleaning, Vapor Degreasing
  • Mode Conversion
Module 5: Application of Penetrants and Developers
  • Wave Interference: Constructive and Destructive
  • Different ways of applying penetrants
  • Standard Temperature Limits
  • Dwell time
  • Drying
  • Drying Parameters
  • Drying Time Limits
  • Application of Developers
  • Types of Developers
  • Developing Time
  • Fluorescent Inspection
  • Black Light, Black Light Warm Up Time,
  • Visual Adaptation
  • Post Cleaning
Module 6: Interpretation
  • Interpretation of Test Results
  • Flow Chart for Interpretation
  • Types of Indications like True, False, Relevant and Non Relevant indications
  • Categories of Indications: - Rounded and Linear
  • Evaluation of Indications
  • ASTM E-433 Reference Photographs of Indications types
Module 7: Codes & Standards (Specific Training)
  • ASME Section V, Article 6
  • ASME Section VIII, Appendix 8 (Accept/Reject Criteria)
  • ASTM E-165
  • ASTM E –1417
  • Other codes and standards can be discussed at the request of the students. Please make such requests at time of registration
Practical Training
  • Solvent Removable
  • Water Washable
  • Solvent Removable
  • Emulsifier both Hydrophilic and Lipophilic

Tests on Weld samples (Flaw tech)

  • Test Modes
  • General
  • Specific
  • Practical Tests
Candidates must score a minimum of 70 % in each test and a minimum of 80% average for all the three tests.
Trainning & Certifications
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